농촌 마케팅이란 무엇입니까?

농촌 마케팅에 대해 알아야 할 모든 것. 특히 개발 도상국의 사람들 중 약 3 분의 2는 농촌 지역에 거주하며 생계를위한 농업 및 관련 활동에 의존합니다.

도시 지역에서는 농장, 즉 식품, 섬유 및 기타 원자재의 생산물이 처리되어 소비자에게 제공됩니다.

농촌 마케팅은 개발 된 제품, 합리적인 가격, 적절한 배치 및 올바른 인식의 모음입니다. 마케팅 규칙에 따르면 적절한 매체를 통해 적절한 가격에 적절한 가격으로 적절한 장소에 적절한 제품을 제공해야합니다.

이 같은 규칙은 농촌 마케팅에도 적합합니다.

“농촌 마케팅은 판매 가능한 농산물을 생산하기위한 결정으로 시작하는 프로세스이며 기술 및 경제적 인 고려 사항에 따라 기능적 및 제도적 시장 구조 또는 시스템의 모든 측면을 포함하며 수확 전 및 수확 후 작업을 포함합니다. 조립, 채점, 보관, 운송 및 유통.”

에 대한 학습:

1. 농촌 마케팅 소개 2. 농촌 마케팅의 정의 3. 농촌 마케팅의 의미와 범위 4. 특징 5. 농촌 환경

6. 농촌 시장 개척 필요성 7. 농촌 시장 성장에 기여하는 요인 8. 제약 사항 9. 농촌 시장에서의 마케팅 커뮤니케이션 10. 인도 농촌 마케팅의 새로운 차원

11. 농촌 시장의 조직 및 운영 12. 농촌 소비자 및 그들의 행동 13. 중요성 14. 인도 농촌 시장의 기회.

농촌 마케팅이란 무엇인가 : 정의, 의미, 특징, 농촌 환경, 새로운 차원, 중요성 및 기타 세부 사항


내용:

  1. 농촌 마케팅 소개
  2. 농촌 마케팅의 정의
  3. 농촌 마케팅의 의미와 범위
  4. 농촌 마케팅의 특징
  5. 농촌 환경
  6. 농촌 시장 탐험의 필요성
  7. 농촌 시장의 성장에 기여하는 요인
  8. 농촌 마케팅의 제약
  9. 농촌 시장에서의 마케팅 커뮤니케이션
  10. 인도 농촌 마케팅의 새로운 차원
  11. 농촌 시장의 조직과 일
  12. 농촌 소비자와 그들의 행동
  13. 농촌 마케팅의 중요성
  14. 인도의 농촌 시장 기회

농촌 마케팅이란? – 소개

소비재 제품에 대한 인도 시장은 두 부분으로 구성되는데, 하나는 도시이고 다른 하나는 시골 시장입니다. 농촌 시장을위한 별도의 전략을 개발할 필요가 있는지 여부는 마케팅 학자와 실무자 모두에게 큰 문의가되었습니다.

대체로 인도 시장 시나리오에 따르면 마케팅 담당자는 농촌 시장에 대한 별도의 마케팅 전략을 거의 찾지 못했지만 마케팅 담당자는 농촌 시장에 대한 별도의 마케팅 믹스를 은밀하게 개발했습니다. 마케팅 담당자가 브랜드에 대한 농촌 마케팅을 할 때마다 마케팅 담당자는 제품의 가격을 낮추어 제품 품질을 평균 수준으로 유지하여 제품에 추가되는 추가 프릴의 비용을 줄였습니다.

본 논문의 본질은 도시 시장과 비교하여 농촌 시장의 고유 한 특징과 관련하여 별도의 마케팅 전략의 필요성에 대한 논쟁을 여는 데있다. 다음은 농촌 마케팅을위한 마케팅 전략의 틀 또는 개요를 제시합니다.

농촌 시장의 광대 함은 마케팅 담당자에게 도전이자 기회입니다. 생활 수준을 개선하려는 욕구는 도시 지역과 마찬가지로 시골 지역에서도 예의 바르게 느껴집니다. 농촌 소득은 증가하고 있으며 빈곤율은 감소하고 있습니다.

이 광대 한 시장 잠재력을 활용하기위한 마케팅 전략은 농촌 지역의 특수 특성, 농촌 인구의 태도 및 사회 심리적 특성을 고려해야합니다.

실제로, 마케팅 채널과 유통 아울렛 및 통신 시설을 개선하는 것은 농촌 지역의 변화에 ​​관한 것일 수 있습니다.

마케팅 전략의 설계 및 개발은 본질적으로 소비자에 대한 철저한 이해로부터 흘러야하며, 이러한 맥락에서 그것은 농촌 소비자입니다. 그러므로 농촌 소비자와 농촌 소비자의 차이점을 이해해야한다.

대부분의 경우 농촌 소비자는 문맹, 저소득층 소비자, 가격에 더 민감하고 그룹 내에서 사회적 상호 작용이 많고 심리적으로 감정적이며 의견 지도자들에 의해 안내되고 흡인 수준이 낮으며 모방 특성이 있습니다. 이 사실 매트릭스는 농촌 소비자를 다루기 위해 더 큰 도전을 이끌고 있습니다.

농촌 지역의 마케팅 담당자는 다음을 조사해야합니다.

(a) 소비자 수요 및 구매 능력에 의한 시장 평가에 도움이되는 시장 잠재력에 의한 시장 세분화.

(b) 소비자 지출, 구매 원, 각 구매의 수량, 구매 시간 및 조건에서 소비자 행동 및 농촌 소비자의 우선 순위 및 선호.

(c) 농촌 소비자를 이기고 미디어를 효과적으로 활용하는 가장 좋은 방법.

(d) 변화의 촉매제는 누구이며 제품에 대해 어떤 역할을 수행 할 수 있는가?

농촌 소비자의 배경에 대해 마케팅 전략을 발전시켜야합니다. 또한 농촌 시장, 접근 불능, 흩어진 마을, 비전문가 소매업 자와 관련된 제약이 있습니다.


농촌 마케팅은 무엇입니까 – 전문가의 정의 : Thomsen, GN Murthy, TP Gopalaswamy 및 기타

농촌 마케팅을 정의한 다양한 전문가가 있습니다.

전문가의 정의 중 일부는 다음과 같습니다.

Thomsen은 농촌 마케팅을 다음과 같이 정의했습니다. 농촌 마케팅에 대한 연구는 농장에서 최종 소비자로 농산물 식품, 원자재 및 그 파생물 (직물 등)의 이동에 관여하는 모든 작업과이를 수행하는 기관으로 구성됩니다., 이러한 운영이 생산자, 중개인 및 소비자에게 미치는 영향”

GN Murthy에 따르면 –“농촌 마케팅은 농민에 의한 농산물 조달 및 농산물에서 소비자로의 농산물 이동과 관련된 모든 활동, 기관 및 정책에 대한 연구”입니다.

TP Gopalaswamy에 따르면 –“농촌 마케팅은 농촌 지역에서와 같이 도시에서 농촌으로 (상품) 및 그 반대로 (농산물로) 상품의 흐름을 지시하는 비즈니스 활동의 배출을 포함하는 양방향 프로세스입니다. ”.

“농촌 마케팅은 판매 가능한 농산물을 생산하기위한 결정으로 시작하는 프로세스이며 기술 및 경제적 인 고려 사항을 기반으로 기능적 및 제도적 측면에서 시장 구조 또는 시스템의 모든 측면을 포함합니다. 수확 전 및 수확 후 작업, 조립, 채점, 보관, 운송 및 유통”.

농촌 마케팅은 간단히 말해서 농촌 지역에 대한 마케팅 기능의 계획 및 구현이라고 결론지었습니다.

농촌 마케팅과 관련된 회사의 예는 다음과 같습니다.

(a) 두 가지 주요 콜라 브랜드 인 코카콜라와 펩시는 일반적인 시장 점유율과는 별도로 농촌 시장에 진입하기 위해 노력해 왔습니다. 그들은 아이스 박스, 냉장고, 신용 시설 등을 제공하는 등 가격, 유통 전략 등과 같은 많은 마케팅 전략을 생각해 냈습니다.

농촌 시장에서 승리하는 것은 두 브랜드 모두에게 가장 힘든 일이었습니다. 도시 시장에서 큰 인기를 끌고 있지만 브랜드 이미지는 농촌 시장에서 충성 고객을 확보하지 못할 것입니다. Coke와 Pepsi는 소매점과 유통망을 크게 늘리고 혁신적인 마케팅 전략을 통해 농촌 시장에 깊이 침투하기 위해 많은 노력을 기울였습니다.

(b) Dabur는 빠르게 확장되어 18 개월 이내에 30, 000 개의 마을에 봉사한다는 원래 목표를 초과했습니다. 농촌 지역의 총 매출 마진이 개선 되었음에도 불구하고 농촌 시장의 판매 성장률은 현재 도시 시장보다 42 % 높습니다.


농촌 마케팅이란? – 의미와 범위

국내 시장과 글로벌 시장의 치열한 경쟁으로 인해 기업들은 현재 도시 지역에서 농촌 지역으로 이동하고 있습니다. 회사는 제품에 대한 지식을 개발 및 업그레이드하고 고객들 사이에 제품에 대한 필수 세그먼트를 만들어 농촌 지역에 정착하고 있습니다. 농촌 지역은 무시할 만하게 도청되었지만 세계화가 증가하면서 마케팅 담당자는 농촌 시장과 연결해야했습니다.

농촌 마케팅은 개발 된 제품, 합리적인 가격, 적절한 배치 및 올바른 인식의 모음입니다. 마케팅 규칙에 따르면 적절한 매체를 통해 적절한 가격에 적절한 가격으로 적절한 장소에 적절한 제품을 제공해야합니다. 이 같은 규칙은 농촌 마케팅에도 적합합니다.

지난 수십 년 동안 인도 농촌 시장은 농촌 인구의 구매력이 증가함에 따라 눈에 띄게되었습니다. 농촌 지역은 도시 지역에서 제조 된 대량의 제품을 소비합니다. 따라서 농촌 시장은 도시 시장보다 중요 해지고있다. 오늘날, 마케팅 담당자는 미개척 농촌 시장에서 확장을 모색하고 있습니다.

인도 인구의 대다수는 시골 지역에 산다. 따라서 인도 농촌 지역에는 마케팅에 대한 광범위한 범위가 있습니다.

조직은 다음과 같은 이유로 농촌 마케팅을 따릅니다.

에이. 농촌 인구 – 6 억 6 천만 명이 넘는 사람들로 구성되어 있으며 조직을위한 거대한 시장을 형성합니다.

비. 농촌 경제 – 국가의 GDP에 크게 기여합니다. Rural India에는 ​​브랜드 제품에 대해 알고 있고 구매하고자하는 많은 가정이 있습니다.

씨. 농촌과 ​​도시 경제의 관계 – 농촌과 도시 지역 간의 경제 연결성을 의미합니다.


농촌 마케팅이란 무엇입니까? 9 가지 주요 기능 : 낮은 생활 수준, 전통적인 전망, 인프라 시설, 시장 성장, 구매 능력 및 기타 소수

농촌 시장에 집중하고 농촌 시장의 시장 잠재력을 활용하기위한 효과적인 전략을 개발하기 위해서는 다음과 같이 농촌 시장의 기능을 알아야합니다.

기능 # 1. 다양하고 흩어진 시장 :

인도의 농촌 시장은 규모가 크며 여러 지역으로 흩어져 있습니다. 그것은 32 라크 평방 킬로미터 면적에 걸쳐 6, 38, 365 개의 마을에 사는 약 75 crores의 농촌 소비자들로 구성되어 있습니다. 소수의 대도시, 국제 도시 및 도시에 한정된 도시 시장과는 달리 6.30 개의 라크 마을이 흩어져 있으며 널리 퍼져 있습니다. 정착 지당 인구가 적은 특징이있는 넓고 널리 퍼져있는 지리적 시장을 덮으면 재고 및 운송 비용이 증가하여 농촌 지역에서 유통 시스템의 노선 일정 운영의 실행 가능성에 영향을 미칩니다.

특징 # 2. 농촌 소비자의 주요 수입은 농업에서 나옵니다 :

농촌 번영은 농업 번영과 관련이 있습니다. 농촌 사람들의 수입의 대부분은 농업에서 비롯됩니다. 농작물 실패의 경우 농촌 대중의 소득이 직접 영향을받습니다. 그러나 다른 분야가 농촌 경제에서 중요한 역할을하기 시작하면서 최근 과거는 농업에 대한 유일한 의존도의 점진적인 감소를 보았습니다.

특징 # 3. 생활 수준이 낮음 :

농촌 인구는 소규모 농업 및 관련 직종에 고용됩니다. 농촌 소득의 경우이 신뢰할 수없는 요인으로 인해 농촌 소비자는 미래 수입에 대한 확신이 없기 때문에 구매 행동을 극도로 의식하게됩니다. 농촌 인구의 대다수는 빈곤선 아래에서 생활하며 문해 율이 낮고 1 인당 소득이 낮으며 사회적 후진성 등이 낮습니다.

이 외에도 전통, 종교적 압박, 문화적 가치 및 뿌리 깊은 미신은 사회적 이동성을 높이는 데 방해 요소입니다. 미래의 긴급 상황을 대비 한 번영으로 농촌 사람들은 소득이 좋은 경우에도 생활 수준을 향상시키는 데 지출을 줄입니다.

기능 # 4. 전통적인 전망 :

마을은 천천히 발전하고 전통적인 전망을 가지고 있습니다. 변화는 지속적인 과정이지만 대부분의 시골 사람들은 변화를 점진적으로 받아들입니다. 그들은 대부분 변화에 저항합니다. 특히 마을의 전망을 바꾸기 시작한 젊은이들의 문해력으로 인해 점진적으로 변화하고 있습니다.

기능 # 5. 인프라 시설 :

부적절한 인프라는 도시와 농촌 시장을 구별하는 가장 중요한 요소입니다. 시멘트 도로, 창고, 통신 시스템 및 금융 시설과 같은 인프라 시설은 농촌 지역에 적합하지 않습니다. 농촌 마케팅의 범위를 넓히는 부적절한 인프라 시설로 인해 농촌 지역에서 승진과 물리적 분배가 매우 어려워지고 있습니다.

기능 # 6. 시장 성장 :

농촌 시장은 수년간 꾸준히 성장하고 있습니다. 자전거, 농산물, FMCG 제품 등과 같은 전통적인 제품에 대한 수요도 수년 동안 증가했습니다. 성장은 양적뿐만 아니라 질적이었습니다.

이는 농촌 개발 프로그램을 통해 이용 가능한 새로운 고용 기회와 새로운 수입원의 결과로 녹색과 흰색 혁명과 농촌 대중에 대한 기대치 상승의 결과로 이어졌습니다. 자전거, 농산물, 농산물 등과 같은 제품에 대한 수요도 수년 동안 증가했습니다. 이로 인해 농촌 지역의 잠재력이 높아집니다.

Feature # 7. 다양한 사회 경제적 배경 :

지리적 지역의 분산과 고르지 않은 토지 비옥도로 인해 농촌 사람들은 별도의 사회 경제적 배경을 가지고 있으며 궁극적으로 농촌 시장에 영향을 미칩니다. 마을 사람들은 다른 종교, 문화 및 사회 단체에 속합니다. 사회 문화적 배경은 소비자가 다른 분야에서 혁신과 신제품을 받아들이려는 의지에 영향을 미칩니다.

소비자 환경의 지리적, 직업, 인구 통계 학적 및 행동으로 인한 행동의 변화는 라이프 스타일에 영향을 미치며 다른 영역에서 전혀 다른 요구를 만듭니다. 따라서 농촌 시장을 효과적으로 분류하여 수익성을 제공 할 필요가 있습니다.

특징 # 8. 농촌 지역의 문해력 :

문해 율은 도시 지역에 비해 농촌 지역에서 낮으며 홍보 목적의 의사 소통 문제로 이어진다. 문맹률이 낮 으면 인쇄 매체가 비효율적이며 도달 범위가 열악하기 때문에 농촌 지역에서는 어느 정도 관련이 없습니다.

영화, 라디오 및 텔레비전과 같은 전자 미디어에 대한 의존도가 높지만 농촌의 문해력 수준은 과거 시골에서 향상되었습니다. 농촌 사람들은 고등 교육을 위해 도시 지역으로 가기 시작했습니다. 정부조차도 농촌 교육에 대한 다양한 계획을 도입했습니다. 인식이 높아졌고 농부들은 주변 세계에 대해 잘 알고 있습니다. 또한 주변의 새로운 기술에 대해 교육하고 더 나은 라이프 스타일을 추구하고 있습니다.

특징 # 9. 구매 용량 :

농촌 경제와 관련된 몇 가지 직간접 요인에 따라 농촌 지역 사람들의 구매력. 농업 잉여 및 농촌 마케팅 – 도시 무역 조건은 농촌 소비자의 구매력의 주요 원천입니다. 인도 농업은 대체로 강우량에 의존합니다.

따라서 소비재에 대한 농촌 수요는 강우에 의해 간접적으로 영향을받습니다. 이로 인해 농촌 소비자의 구매력이 부적절합니다. 그러나 정부가 관개, 홍수 통제, 인프라 개발, 빈곤 퇴치 제도, 보조금 등에 막대한 비용을 지출하기 때문에 농촌의 하루 구매력이 증가하고 있습니다.

따라서 마케팅 담당자는 농촌 지역의 시장 개발에 관심이 있습니다. 미디어가 농촌 지역에 도달하여 마케팅 담당자가 농촌 지역에서 제품을 판매하기가 쉬워졌습니다. 마케팅 담당자는 농촌 시장의 잠재력을 깨닫고 농촌 인도에서 사업을 확장하고 있습니다.


농촌 마케팅 – 농촌 환경

특히 개발 도상국의 사람들 중 약 3 분의 2는 농촌 지역에 거주하며 생계를위한 농업 및 관련 활동에 의존합니다. 도시 지역에서는 농장, 즉 식품, 섬유 및 기타 원자재의 생산물이 처리되어 소비자에게 제공됩니다.

농촌 환경은 농업 지역, 산림, 강, 산 등 자연과 밀접한 관련이 있으며 도시 환경에서는 인공 환경이 만들어집니다. 농촌 지역에서는 사회적 접촉이 개인적이며 상대적으로 오래 지속됩니다. 도시 지역에서 관계는 비 인격적이며 우연하며 대부분 단기적입니다.

농촌 지역은 인구 밀도가 낮고 인구가 많은 도시 지역과는 다른 시골을 나타냅니다. 시골 사람들은 마을, 농장 및 외딴 집에 산다. 시골 지역의 생활 양식은 학교, 은행, 병원, 도서관, 하수도, 가로등, 대중 교통 및 통신 시설과 같은 이용 가능한 서비스가 제한되어있어 도시 지역과 다릅니다.

주택, 건강, 교육, 상수도, 도로, 통신 및 운송과 같은 기본 시설은 대부분의 농촌 지역에서 열악합니다. 농촌 지역 사람들의 절반은 건강에 해롭고 부정한 환경에 살고 있습니다. 농촌 근로가 직면 한 또 다른 문제는 농업 현대화와 소규모 산업의 시작을위한 빈곤, 실업 및 재정 자원 부족입니다. 농촌 환경은 도시 환경과 다릅니다.


농촌 마케팅이란 무엇인가 – 농촌 시장 탐험의 필요성 : 농촌 시장 성장, 주요 도시 시장에서의 심한 경쟁 및 기타 소수

좋은 제조 시설과 마케팅 전문 지식을 가진 많은 회사들이 농촌 지역에서 소비재와 서비스를 판매하고 도시 시장에서 농산물을 마케팅 할 기회가 있기 때문에 농촌 시장에 집중하고 있습니다.

1. 성장하는 농촌 시장 :

농산물 투입 외에도 농촌 지역의 소비재 시장이 성장하고있다. NCAER에 따르면 농촌 소비자는 인도의“소비 계층”의 50 % 이상을 차지하며 소비재 및 서비스의 대상 그룹을 구성합니다.

2. 주요 도시 시장에서의 심한 경쟁 :

도시 시장에서의 치열한 경쟁으로 인해 비용은 증가했지만 시장 점유율과 수익은 높지 않았습니다. 많은 회사들이 농촌 시장에서 제품을 설립하는 데 앞장서 왔습니다.

예 – HUL, Colgate, Marico, Nirma, LG Electronics.

3. 농민을 농업으로 취급하도록 농민의 태도를 바꾸는 방법 :

전통적으로 농부들은 농업을 생활 방식으로 취급했으며 가족의 요구 사항을 충족시키기에 충분한 양을 생산했습니다. 많은 진보적 농민들은 현대 농업 관행에 따라 농작물 수확량을 늘 렸습니다. 소규모 농민조차도 생산량을 늘리도록 장려 될 것입니다. 농업이 잘 발달되면 농산물의 수입은 시장성이 높은 잉여의 결과로 증가 할 것입니다. 이것은 산업 및 소비재에 대한 좋은 수요를 제공합니다.

4. 농촌 마케팅은 고용 기회를 창출합니다 :

농업의 다양 화, 마을 수준의 산업의 발전 및 현대의 상품 및 서비스의 마케팅은 고용 기회를 제공합니다.

예-

(a) 보험 회사가 비즈니스를 찾아 점점 더 시골로 갈수록 농촌 부문에 기회가있을 것입니다. 시골 인도를 이해하는 사람들은 수요가있을 것입니다.

(b) 높은 마멸 률과 인적 자원 비용의 증가로 인해 많은 BPO 회사들은 더 싸고 충성스러운 인재 풀을 찾기 위해 배후로 이동하고 있습니다. 소프트웨어 회사조차도 작은 도시에 센터를 설립하고 있습니다. 농촌 지역에서는 급여가 도시 및 부동산보다 최대 50 % 저렴하여 비용이 약 5 배 저렴하여 비용 경쟁력이 향상됩니다.

(c) 정부는 자동차 산업의 숙련 된 근로자를 생산하기 위해 공공-민간 파트너십을 기반으로 농촌 지역에 전문 기관 체인을 설립 할 계획이다. 농촌 개발부는이 제안을지지했으며 재정적 지원 및 기타 지원 확대를 제안했다. 연구소는 기존 산업 훈련 기관과 유사 할 수 있습니다.

5. 농촌 관광 :

시골 사람들이 관광객에게 제공하는 다양한 활동, 서비스 및 편의 시설을 포함합니다. 문화 및 농장 관광, 자연 휴가 및 농촌 여행이 포함됩니다. 마을 생활 양식과 전통 환대가 관광객을위한 또 다른 명소입니다. 많은 도시 사람들은 농촌 관광을 선택했을 것입니다. 농촌 관광은 뿌리 (마을)로 돌아가 도시 생활의 압력에서 벗어날 수있는 기회를 제공하기 때문입니다. 농촌 관광은 주민들에게 고용 기회와 소득 증가를 가져옵니다. 또한 농촌 휴일은 젊은 도시 인구가 농촌 생활을 경험할 수있게합니다.

예-

(a) 쿤달 (마하라 슈트라 상 글리 지구)에있는 쿠시 (레슬링) 카니발은 두 명의 가까운 사람들을 끌어들입니다.

(b) 마하라 슈트라의 우승자는 와인 관광을 시작했습니다. 와인 관광의 아이디어는 방문객들이 와이너리에 머물러 포도원을 보며 와인을 만드는 과정을 느끼게하는 것입니다. 이것은 또한 음료를 맛볼 수있게합니다.

(c) 폰갈 (Pongal)의 수확 축제 동안 수행 된 Jallikattu (황소 길들이기)는 타밀 나두 여행 패키지의 일부가되었습니다.

(d) 라자스탄은 요새, 궁전, 사암, 그림, 도자기, 마을 공예품 및 지역 사회 오락 시설이있는 목적지로 소개되었습니다.

(e) 180km에 위치한 마을 푸 루쉬 와디. 뭄바이에서 마을 관광을 홍보하는 단체 인 "Grass Routes"의 노력으로 인해 관광 센터가되었습니다. 2006 년부터 60여 가구가 손님과 함께 머물며 마을 생활과 언덕 사원 방문, 트레킹, 농장에서 일하기, 강에서 목욕하기 등을 경험할 수 있습니다.

6. 농촌 지역에 거주하는 국가 인구의 70 % 이상 :

매우 큰 소비자 기반을 가진 농촌 시장은 엄청난 잠재력을 가지고 있으며 기업은 농촌 시장을 내일의 시장으로 예측합니다.

중산층 부문은 인도 도시이며 이미 서비스가 잘되어 있습니다. 그러나 농촌 시장은 은행업, 보험, 기본 건강 관리, 교육 및 주택과 관련하여 서비스가 부족합니다. 또한 시골 지역에서는 4 륜차, 냉장고, 컬러 TV 등의 보급률이 낮으며 창의적인 마케팅 담당자에게는 큰 기회가 있습니다.

7. 브랜드 충성도 :

저소득으로 인해 대부분의 농촌 소비자는 가격에 민감합니다. 그러나 제품에 만족하면 브랜드를 계속 후원 할 것입니다.

예 – Parle Biscuits는 지역 브랜드에서 계속 인기를 얻고 있습니다.

8. 외국 경쟁 :

인도 시장에 진출하는 외국 기업은 일반적으로 도시 소비자에 중점을 둡니다. 따라서 농촌 시장에서는 경쟁이 줄어 듭니다.

9. 지역 TV 네트워크의 개발 :

마케팅 담당자는 제품 및 서비스에 대한 메시지를 농촌 인구에게 전달할 수있었습니다.

예-

(a) 더 젊은 마을 세대는 초기 세대에 걸쳐 다양한 미디어에 상당히 노출되어 있으며 도시의 상대를 모방하고 싶어합니다. 어린이는 농촌 지역에서 구매 결정에 영향을 미치는 데 중요한 역할을합니다.

(b) 비스킷 카테고리에서 브리타니아는 어린이를 염두에두고 Tiger 브랜드를 출시했습니다. 비스킷은 태그 라인 'Tiger Khao, kuch banke dikhao'로 아이들을 목표로 삼았습니다.

10. 수명주기 이점 :

많은 제품들이 도시 지역의 성숙 / 거절 단계에 도달하는 반면 시골 지역에서는 여전히 성장 단계에 있습니다.


농촌 마케팅이란 무엇인가 – 성장에 기여하는 요소 : 유리한 정부 정책, 농업 개발, 인도 경제 개발 및 기타 소수

요소 # 1. 유리한 정부 정책 :

Mahatma Gandhi는“인도는 마을에 살고 선진국이 되려면 마을을 개발해야한다”고 올바르게 말했다. 정부는 농촌 지역의 경제 발전을 주도했으며 5 년 계획을 통해 농업, 축산, 관개, 전기, 유제품 및 카디 및 마을 산업 및 인프라 시설 개발에 많은 투자를했습니다. 10 차 5 개년 계획에서 농업과 농촌 지역의 개발, 교통, 통신, 전기 및 건강, 교육, 고용 창출과 같은 사회 서비스에 우선 순위가 주어졌습니다.

Manmohan Singh 박사는 최근 인도 농촌에 대한 그의 비전에 대해 이야기했습니다. “인도 농촌에 대한 나의 비전은 나란히 공존하는 현대의 농업, 산업 및 서비스 경제에 대한 것입니다. 사람들은 장비가 잘 갖추어 진 마을에 살면서 농장이나 비 농장에서 쉽게 출퇴근 할 수 있습니다. 경제. 이 비전을 실현하기 위해 현대 과학 기술이 할 수있는 일은 많이 있습니다. 농촌 수입을 늘려야합니다. 농촌 인프라가 개선되어야합니다. 농촌 건강 및 교육 요구가 충족되어야합니다. 농촌 지역에서 고용 기회를 만들어야합니다.”

농촌 개발은 포괄적 인 프로그램으로 농업, 마을 산업, 서비스 부문 및 주택, 공중 보건, 문맹 퇴치, 교통, 교육 및 커뮤니케이션 개발을 포함합니다.

정부는 다음과 같이 구성된 농촌 개발에 대한 전체적이고 통합 된 접근 방식을 시작했습니다.

(i) '바랏 니만 (Bharat Nirman)'의 우산 아래 농촌 기반 시설 개발 프로그램.

(ii) 고용 보장 프로그램에 중점을 둔 National Food for Work 프로그램. 이 작업은 물 절약, 토지 개발, 홍수 통제 및 농촌 연결과 관련이 있습니다.

(iii) 농촌 지역에서 추가 임금 고용과 식량 안보를 제공하기위한 Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana (1993).

(iv) Pradhanmantri Gram Sadak Yojana – 새로운 도로를 건설하고 한 개의 라크 마을을 연결하고 기존 도로를 업그레이드하기 위해 2000 년에 시작되었습니다.

(v) Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (2013)은 다음을 제공합니다. – 국가 농촌 건강 사명 하에서 아동 질병의 무료 치료.

(vi) Swarnajayanthi Gram Swarojgar Yojana – 1999 년에 시작된이 프로그램은 필요 기반의 신용과 보조금을 혼합하여 주민들 사이의 자영업을 개발하는 것을 목표로합니다. 집중적 농촌 개발 프로그램, 밀리언 웰스 제도, 농촌 지역의 여성 및 아동 개발과 같은 초기 프로그램은이 계획에 따라 통합되었습니다.

(vii) 국가 농촌 고용 보장 제도 (2006)-

(a) 농촌 주택 프로젝트 또는 농촌 사람들에게 피난처 제공.

(b) 농부들과 다른 사람들에게 신용 흐름을 강화.

(c) 농업 위험에 대한 보장.

(d) 농산물 시장 조성.

(e) IT 및 인터넷 연결을 통한 농업 시장 정보 제공.

(f) 밀, 쌀 및 콩의 생산을 증가시키기위한 국가 식량 안보 임무.

(g) Rastriya Krishi Vikas Yojana, 농업에 대한 공공 투자 확대

(viii) 농민들에게 연장 훈련을 향한 국가 농업 확장 시스템.

예 – Bihar는 e-Krishi Bhavans를 블록 레벨에서 시작한 최초의 주가되었습니다. 이 전산화 된 전자-크리시 바반 (E-Krishi Bhavans)은 기술 조언, 토양 테스트 및 농부들에게 훈련과 같은 서비스 패키지를 제공 할 것입니다. 이 센터에는 농산물 가격, 시장 도착, 기상 조건 등에 대한 최신 정보를 제공하는 인터넷 시설이 있습니다.

(ix) 농림부에 의해 국가 원예 사명 (NHM)이 2005-2006 년부터 시행되고있다. 임무의 목표는 원예 작물 (과일, 채소 및 꽃)의 생산 및 생산성을 높이고 수확 후 손실을 줄이며 영양 안전을 개선하며 수출을 늘리며 농민의 소득을 늘리고 실업자를위한 고용 기회를 창출하는 것입니다.

화초 재배 수출액은 2010 년까지 1, 000 루피에 닿았습니다. 국내 시장은 약 3, 000 루피로 추정되며 연간 40 % 씩 성장하고 있습니다. 정부는 벵갈 루루, 콜카타, 노이다 및 뭄바이에 꽃 경매 센터를 설립하고 있으며 고아, 캘리컷 및 코임 바토르의화물 취급 시설을 개선하고 있습니다.

Central Statistical Organization의 최신 보고서에 따르면 Bihar, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh 및 Jharkhand와 같은 주에서는 같은 기간 동안 모든 인도 성장에 비해 2004-05 년과 2008-09 년 사이에 더 높은 성장을 보였습니다. Example-Bihar는 2012 년 말 11 차 계획 기간 동안 국가 평균 성장률 7.90 %와 비교하여 12.10 % 성장했습니다.

요인 # 2. 농업 개발 :

농업은 우리나라 GDP의 약 16 %에 기여하지만 농촌 인구의 65 % 이상은 생계를 위해 농업에 의존하고 있습니다. 농업 부문은 도시 인구에게 식량을 공급하고 면화, 사탕 수수 및 노동력과 같은 원자재를 산업 부문에 공급하기 때문에 인도 경제에서 중요한 역할을합니다.

농업 번영은 농촌 지역에서 소비재에 대한 상당한 수요를 창출합니다. Madhya Pradesh와 같은 국가는 11 차 5 개년 계획 기간 동안 모든 인도의 성장률 3.20 %에 비해 9.04 %의 농업 성장을 보였습니다. Madhya Pradesh는 2003 년에 7 개의 라크 헥타르에 비해 16 개의 라크 헥타르를 관개하고 있습니다.

다음과 같은 이니셔티브는 농업의 성장과 발전으로 이어졌습니다.

(a) 농업 교육 및 연구 – 농업 대학 및 연구소 설립은 농업 분야의 기술 인력 및 기술 개발의 가용성을 보장했다.

(b) 60 년대 후반과 70 년대 초의 녹색 혁명은 현대 경작 관행을 통한 작물 수확량 증가에 초점을 두었다. 60 년대 중반의 식량 부족 국가로부터 우리나라는 1971 년에 식량 생산에 자급 자족하게되었으며 현재 농산물을 다른 나라로 수출하고 있습니다. 농촌 사람들의 가처분 소득이 증가했습니다.

(c) 작물 다양성 – 식량 작물에서 면화, 고추, 과일, 채소, 꽃 및 종자 생산과 같은 현금 작물로의 작물 양식 변경으로 인해 재배자는 수입을 늘릴 수있었습니다.

(d) 농업의 다양 화 – 몬순에 대한 의존성을 고려하여 많은 농부들이 수입을 보충하기 위해 가금류, 어류 양식 및 유제품 생산을 시작했다.

(e) 우유 혁명에서 자급 자족을 달성하기 위해 정부가 백인 혁명을 시작했다. 이 정책은 농촌 협동 조합을 통해 우유를 생산하고 가공 된 우유 제품을 도시 지역으로 옮기는 것을 계획했다. 우유 생산량은 1950 년 17Mio 톤에서 2012 년 123Mio 톤으로 증가했으며 농촌 소득이 증가했습니다. 인도 유제품 산업은 현재 세계 최대 규모이며 세계 우유 생산량의 20 %를 차지합니다.

현재 생산 된 우유의 약 20 %만이 처리됩니다. 유제품에 대한 수요는 생산 된 우유의 상당 부분을 처리함으로써 쉽게 충족 될 수 있습니다. 고품질 유제품 수출 기회가 있으며 인도 농촌을 인도 달러로 변환 할 수 있습니다.

예-구자라트는 유제품 개발에 앞장서 서 펀 자브, 안드라 프라데시, 마하라 슈트라 및 타밀 나두와 같은 국가를 주도했습니다.

요인 # 3. 인도 경제의 발전 :

In an underdeveloped country, a large part of national income is contributed by primary sector (Agriculture) and as the country develops, share of primary sector declines and that of secondary (Manufacturing) and tertiary sector (Services) increase.

There has been expansion of industrial and service sectors leading to more employment opportunities. Therefore, Indian economy has undergone a change from underdeveloped economy to a developing economy.

Factor # 4. Rising Aspirations of Rural People and Attraction for High Standard of Living :

The average household income has increased from Rs.52, 000 (2005) to Rs.76, 000 (2010). Further it has been observed that monthly salary earners have high income compared to income from the farm. The rise in income coupled with increased awareness and the need for possess modern goods have influenced the rural marketing environment in the country.

The mobility towards higher income group has been higher in rural area compared to urban. The rural consumer is quickly moving from basic necessities to branded products.

Examples-

(a) The rural youth forms a distinct segment of the population. They are modern, knowledgeable and receptive to changes than their elders. They value material comforts and are quick in adopting fashionable lifestyle. Marketers of two-wheelers, TVs, ready-made garments, soft drinks, cosmetic, etc., are targeting the youth market.

(b) Premium brands like Denim Talc and Pantene have entered the market though current volumes are low.

(c) The consumption of instant noodle, an urban product, is growing fast in rural areas.

Factor # 5. Media Explosion :

Expansion of TV network and more channels have contributed to the growth of rural markets. Through several TV channels and internet, rural consumer is also exposed to the global village.

There are about 6 lakh inhabited villages and about 80 per cent of the villages have .been connected through Village Public Telephones. Ending 2011, there were 929 million mobile subscribers. Out of this 327 million subscribers are from rural (35 per cent) areas. Further there are about 60 lakh public telephones in villages.

The Government plans to reach rural teledensity of 40 per cent by 2014. Regarding internet users, at the end of 2013, the number of total internet subscribers in rural India stood at 68 million (All India 205 million). Total internet subscribers is expected to reach 243 million by 2014. (More than in the US the second largest internet base in the world after China).

(a) Many states have Implemented E-governance projects. Karnataka's Bhoomi Project aims at computerisation of land records and the documents are made available through bhoomi kiosks.

(b) E. Seva, for the payment of utility bills, purchase of travel tickets, issue of birth/ death certificates, etc., initiated by Andhra Pradesh has been received well by consumers in urban and semi-urban areas.

(c) Very attractive schemes are offered by mobile operators for semi-urban and rural consumers.

(d) A key factor that has inhibited the development of rural India has been lack of access to critical information and services. Project I Shakti, an IT-based rural information service has been developed to provide information and services to meet the rural needs. I Shakti kiosk is operated by Shakti entrepreneur and provide information on health, hygiene, legal, veterinary, agriculture, education and employment.

Factor # 6. Private Initiatives :

Private agencies have contributed to growth and development of rural areas through village level programmes.

Examples-

(a) Companies like HUL and Colgate have highlighted the importance of health and hygiene among villagers through school teachers, village meetings and film shows.

(b) Parry Corner, internet access centre initiated by Murugappa group in Tamil Nadu, provides information on farming techniques, bank loans, insurance, availability of agricultural inputs, Government schemes, etc., to rural population.

(c) Seeds, fertiliser and pesticide companies have created awareness among farmers about modern methods of cultivation by conducting extension activities such as farm-to-farm visits, group meetings, demonstrations and film shows.

(d) Launched in 2000 by ITC, e-Choupal has become the largest initiative among all the internet-based interventions in rural India. The farmers can sell their produce, buy a variety of products, receive all the information needed to improve their yields and get a better price for the produce through e-Choupal.

(e) Around 40 per cent of Bharti Airtel's Wireless subscribed base resides in rural areas and for Vodafone, the rural use base is around 50 per cent (2012).

(f) Rural naukari.com provides employment opportunities by creating database of rural human resources.

(g) About 53 per cent of HDFC Bank's branches are in rural and semiurban areas.

Factor # 7. Growth in Income :

Number of households (in million) coming under very rich and well-off categories are high in rural areas.

The average income level has improved due to modern farming practices, industrialisation of rural area, growth of service sector, migration of rural people into cities and remittance of their money, remittance of money by family members settled abroad. Rural income (farm and non-farm) contributes to over 50 per cent of the total income of the country. The farm wages have been rising and increased from Rs.110 per day in 2006-2007 to Rs.154 per day in 2011-2012.

Factor # 8. Growing Rural Market :

Rural markets are growing fast and in many states they contribute to substantial sale of FMCG products.

Rural contribution to FMCG sales is high in states that have significant rural population as shown below:


What is Rural Marketing – Marketing Communication

Marketing communication, and promotion too, poses problems in rural markets. There are many constraints emanating from the profile of the audience and the availability of media.

The literacy rate among the rural consumers being low, the printed word has limited use in the rural context. In addition to the low level of literacy, the tradition bound nature of the rural people, their cultural barriers and taboos and their overall economic backwardness add to the difficulty of the communication task. The situation is further compounded by the linguistic diversity.

Rural communication has to necessarily be in the local language and idiom. The constraints of media further compound the difficulty. It has been estimated that all organized media put together can reach only 30 per cent of the rural population of India. TV is an ideal medium for communicating with the rural masses. But its reach in the rural areas is limited even today.

As regards the print media, the various publications reach only 18 per cent of the rural population. Even in areas reached, the circulation is limited. And the low literacy level of the rural population acts as a further inhibitor in the use of the print media in rural communication. Cinema is relatively more accessible. It has been estimated that 33 per cent of the total cinema earnings in the country come from rural India.

Rural communication has also become quite expensive. For rural communication to be effective, repeat exposures is a must; and if the gap between exposures is long, the message loses its edge during this period. These factors make rural communication more expensive. Rural communication has to go through all the time consuming stages of creating awareness, altering attitudes and changing behaviour. In addition, it also has to work against deep rooted behaviour patterns.

In short, the crux of marketing communication in the rural context is one of finding a media mix that will deliver the required message in a cost- effective manner to a target an audience that is predominantly illiterate.

Overcoming the Constraints and Managing the Communication Task :

A company that seeks a long-term presence in the rural market has to squarely encounter these constraints and find a way of communicating effectively with the rural target audience.

Selecting the Media Mix:

Evidently, in the rural context the firm has to choose a combination of formal and non-formal media.

The possibilities are indicated below:

Media Mix in the Rural Context :

1. Formal / Organized Media-

나는. TV

ii. 영화

iii. 프레스

iv. Other print media

v. Direct mail

vi. 라디오

vii. POPs

viii. 옥외

2. Non-Formal/ Rural Specific Media –

나는. Audio-visual vans or publicity vans

ii. Dance-dramas, puppet shows, rural specific art forms like Harikatha and Villupatu performed at village melas and temple festivals

iii. Demonstrations

iv. Study classes

v. Mike announcements, processions.

vi. Caparisoned elephants, decorated bullock carts carrying ad panels.

vii. Music records

viii. House-to-house campaigns by special promotion squads.

ix. Information centers on company's products

1. The Formal Organized Media:

Among the formal/ organized media, TV, Radio, Cinema, POPs and Outdoors have a good scope in the rural context.

나는. TV:

With the increase in coverage and the increase in TV ownership in rural areas, TV has the potential to become the primary medium for rural communication. Studies have revealed that as much as 77 per cent of the villages in India now receive TV transmission and 27 per cent of all rural people actually watch TV.

ii. Radio:

The radio is a well-established medium in rural areas. A big expansion in broadcasting facilities has taken place in the country over the years. The availability of radio sets has also expanded. While radio as a medium cannot match TV in potency and effectiveness, in the existing context, radio does have a role in rural communication.

iii. Cinema:

The cinema is a useful medium in the rural context. Most Indian villages have one or more cinema houses. And 29 per cent of all rural people do see cinema as a matter of regular lifestyle and habit. Short feature films with disguised advertisement messages, direct advertisement films and documentaries that combine knowledge and advertisements, can be employed for rural communication.

iv. Outdoors:

The outdoor also lend itself well to rural communication. In fact, presently, many companies are using the outdoor medium imaginatively in their rural communication mix, through hoardings, wall paintings, illuminations and other displays in the rural areas.

v. POPs:

The POPs, point of purchase (or point of sale) promotion tools are also quite useful in the rural markets. The POPs meant for the rural market should be specially designed to suit the rural requirements. More than written words, symbols, pictures and colours must be used in POPs meant for the rural markets. Colour is of particular significance in the rural context. As a general rule, the rural people love bright colours. The effective communicator utilizes such cues.

2. The Non-Formal/Rural Specific Media :

A variety of non-formal media have been developed over the years by rural marketing firms to suit the specific requirements of rural communication. Some of them are interpersonal media and the others mass media.

The more popular ones among them are analyzed below:

Audio-Visual Publicity Vans. The AV unit or the publicity van is very useful for rural, communication. The van is a comprehensive mobile promotion station at the exclusive command of the concerned firm. The firm can exhibit its films and other audio-visual presentations such as slide shows, sound and sight presentations, puppet shows, etc. from this instant promotion station.

A portable shamiana or platform can be carried in the van and used as the stage. Even mini public meetings can be organized using the shamiana. Portable exhibition kits can be carried in the van and exhibitions put up instantly. The van can also be used for sales campaigns in addition to promotion campaigns.

It can also be used for product demonstrations. In short, the van has all the advantages of carrying and delivering a tailor-made communication programme for the chosen target audience.

Naturally, the AV vans are quite popular with rural marketing firms. Practically all the firms in the agri inputs business have their own AV vans all over their respective marketing territories. Firms marketing consumer softs come second in the use of AV vans. Firms marketing consumer durables come third.

In the third category, the efforts of Philips India deserves a special mention. Philips India has very successfully used the AV vans for popularizing their radios in the rural markets.

While the AV vans are very effective tools in rural promotion, the cost is high as the target population is scattered. The cost of reaching an individual customer or prospect through the van works out high.

In the early stages of market development, in particular, the sales generated may not have any relationship to the cost involved in the extensive use of AV vans. But in view of its effectiveness, big companies with I' resources make a conscious decision to use the vans as a long-term market development tool

Syndicated AV vans. In recent years, rural publicity vans have become a purchasable service. Firms which cannot afford to operate publicity vans of their own can utilize the syndicated AV van service offered by independent agencies.

Music records, puppet shows, Harikatha, etc. Music cassettes and records is another effective medium for rural communication. It is an appealing medium and a comparatively inexpensive medium. One complete language group can be reached on a low budget through specially developed records or cassettes. They can be played in cinema houses or in other places where rural people assemble.

People entertainment programmes like puppet shows, dance dramas, Villupattu and Harikathas specially developed for product promotion purpose are now being used in rural markets. These traditional art forms readily render themselves for communication in rural society.

Sales messages can be beautifully blended with folklore to capture the imagination of rural audiences. Village fairs, festivals and 'melas' are ideal venues for projecting these programmes. In certain cases, public meetings also are useful for promotion in the rural context.

Interpersonal media. Interpersonal media have a special merit in the rural context as they facilitate two way communication/interaction. They also bring market feedback to the firm. In many cases, rural people prefer face-to-face communication to mass communication.

Their confidence in the product and the firm and their goodwill towards the firm become stronger through interpersonal approach. Interpersonal media have their V unique ad vantages; they are segment-specific, market-specific and score high when it comes to involvement and participation of the audience. Rural communication can work best when it generates involvement of the target audience.

In the effort to reach out and go beyond the mass media, a firm can establish contact with the audience through fairs and festivals, folk performances and other special events. These points of contact also provide multiple media opportunities. For example, at any fair various media like audio, audio-visual and interpersonal communication could be used.

Group meetings, demonstrations, house-to-house campaigns. Group meetings of customers and prospects are an important component of interpersonal media. The salesmen or the promotion staff of the firm can effectively carry the product messages to the target audience at these meetings. On the spot demonstrations of the products can also be carried out at these meetings.

House-to-house campaigns constitute a handy tool in the rural market. In these campaigns, small squads of staff or persons specially hired for the x specific promotion make house-to-house visits in the rural areas. Several independent teams may be at work at the same time in different parts of the same village. The teams usually carry with them product promotion literature/handouts/product samples, etc.

These campaigns are different from door-to-door selling campaigns. The promotion squads do not engage in the selling job; they only propagate the product. As companies may normally find it difficult to spare their own staff for such elaborate and time consuming work, they may hire the required people on a daily wage basis, train them briefly and use them under the supervision the of company staff.

Assembled and Delivered :

Media selection is not the only aspect that calls for great care in rural communication. The communication strategy as a whole requires unique the rural context. Experience shows that all companies, which have distinct strategies.

The following are a few examples of successful rural promotions which recognized the distinctiveness of the rural market.

에이. Market Segmentation in Rural Markets :

In addition to the major problem areas explained above, other aspects like market segmentation and product management also require a unique handling in rural markets. Let us first discuss market segmentation.

It would be unwise for any firm to assume that the rural market is a homogeneous market and can be served with the same product-price- promotion combination. Business firms have to carry out a thorough and data based market segmentation, select the relevant segments as their target market and develop distinctive positioning strategies and marketing mix for the chosen segments. Fortunately, the rural market lends itself well to segmentation. In fact, it can be segmented in a number of ways using different bases.

나는. Geographic Segmentation :

In the first place, the rural market can be segmented geographically and different bases can be used for this segmentation. Climate can be the first of these bases; regions endowed with favorable climate are usually more prosperous compared with climatically handicapped regions. Level of irrigation can be another base. Irrigated areas and dry land areas pose different marketing environments.

And within irrigated areas, single crop; double crop and triple crop areas indicate varying levels of prosperity. Level of agricultural advancement in overall terms can also be a base. In this approach, parameters like adoption level of high yielding varieties, adoption level of fertilizer use and standard of agricultural practices will have to be reckoned with.

Yet another form of geographic segmentation can be tried, using 'nearness to a feeder town' as the base. Studies have revealed that rural consumers who are located in the immediate hinterland of a feeder town visit the feeder town at least once a month to sell their produce and/ or to buy their requirements.

Studies have also revealed that in exposure and buying habits, those who are located near a feeder town are different from those living in the remote rural areas. It may be therefore, useful to segment the rural market into consumers who are located closer to a feeder town and consumers who are located away from the feeder towns. Evidently, different

Approaches to marketing can be adopted to serve the two segments. Similarly, nearness to an industrial project center can also be used as a relevant consideration for segmentation. There is a cross flow of population between project centers and rural hinterlands. As such, the project centers act as conduits for the flow of products and ideas. This fact can be used for segmentation.

ii. Demographic Segmentation:

Demographically there are many possibilities of segmenting the rural market. Population spread or population concentration can be one base. About 36 per cent of the rural population lives in seven per cent of the villages in the country and the remaining 64 per cent live in 93 per cent of the villages. The rural market can be segmented on the basis of different size classes with respect to population.

Segmentation using age as the base also has a good scope in rural marketing. About 26 per cent of the rural population falls within the 5-15 years age group. This means that there is a population of more than 15 crore in this age group in the rural market. Similarly, there is a population of more than 20 crore in the age group of 16-30 years in the rural market.

It can serve as a base for segmentation. Surveys have revealed that the younger generation dominates the purchases in the rural market. This is partly due to their greater literacy and exposure and partly due to their changing values and styles. These facts are relevant to the marketing person.

Literacy can be another base for demographic segmentation of the rural market. Though rural India, in general, is characterized by low literacy, there are wide variations in literacy within rural India. For example, while the rural literacy rate in Kerala is 60 per cent that of Bihar is only 12 per cent.

Income too can be a base. In fact, income will be a particularly useful base for segmenting the rural market since income distribution in the market is quite uneven. It will be unwise to assume that all people in a particular rural area will be able to consume a particular product. It will be equally unwise to paint the whole area with the same brush and call it a market with 'low purchasing power.

비. Product Management in Rural Markets :

In product management, the most crucial decision in the rural context is whether the product that is sold in the urban market can be supplied to the rural market as it is or whether it must be adapted. The decision depends on the situation and the nature of the product.

The firm must find out what kind of product is required by the rural consumer and then make and supply the required product. In some cases, the same product may be equally acceptable in both rural and urban areas. In yet other cases, the basic product can be the same but the colour, size and package may have to be especially designed for the rural target group. For example, in the paint.

The Size and Importance of the Rural Market:

The rural market in India is made up of two broad compartments:

(a) The market for consumption goods, including both fast-moving consumer goods and durables; 과

(b) The market for agricultural inputs and other investment goods.

Not surprisingly, a survey carried out recently, indicates that the entire demand potential for manufactured goods that exists in this country has been largely untapped. The truth, however, is that not even a fraction of the rural market has been serviced by the industries in the organized sector.


What is Rural Marketing – New Dimensions in India

New problems are emerging due to the invasion of corporations to take over the rural economy. One of them is opening up the rural sector to real estate development corporations, insurance companies, banking and transport, tele-communication, and power to give a surge to investment in rural industry.

The Tatas have already established plants for preservation of perishable vegetables. They have installed micro-processing plants for eradicating bacteria from fresh vegetables to ensure longer shelf life. These are examples of big business houses taking advantage of their position of vantage in acquisition of advanced technology.

At present, agriculture is contributing 40 per cent of GDP, and showing a growth of 11 per cent. The capital industry is experiencing a much higher growth-23 per cent in 1994-95 (April end). The share of the rural sector is 35 per cent in the total investment of the private sector.

Factories for production of fertilizers and pesticides, farm implements and machinery, and motorised trollies are being located in the rural regions. Development would have been faster than, at present, if power and telecommunication facilities had been developed.

A rough estimate of income in rural areas puts it at 1.6 lakh crore per annum, with 11 per cent average growth. Till recently, it was strongly believed that the rural consumption pattern is traditional. The assumption led to the conclusion that the rural economy is static and devoid of dynamism.

The awareness created by electric media began to change the traditional pattern of consumption. Watches, soaps, toothpastes, brushes, sewing machines fridges, TVs, transistors, record players. Hi-fi musical gadgets, allopathic medicines, fancy clothes, care, motorcycles, jeeps and gypsies are common durable consumer items in villages for the upper classes.

The members of the growing opulent class in the rural sector are educated. They are managing farms on commercial lines and have acquired a state for an urban life-style. The houses, interior decoration, designs, architecture furnishing and fixtures resemble those of urban villages.

The farmhouses have the guest rooms and servant quarters and poultries and dairies for the kitchen. The rich farmers are very rich. The economic activities have been vastly diversified from farming to real estate development. Access to big money has come in handy for lavish spending by rich farmers in casinos and elite clubs in cities.

On the contrary, landless workers, forming the major chunk of rural society, are finding it difficult to make both ends meet. Illiteracy, ignorance, deprivation and unemployment are major problems. They can hope rise only if the state comes forward with bold and ambitious plans to fight poverty.

Training and transfer of technology are the only means of rehabilitating landless workers, through providing jobs in industries in rural areas. In the near future, poverty can be turned into prosperity for the masses. NOIDA in Western UP and Unnao in Eastern UP can be cited as examples.

The leather footwear industry established in Unnao is a successful exporter. It employs local workers and pays a steady wage of over Rs. 100/- a day. It takes one week for a worker to learn operating modern machines. NOIDA in Ghaziabad district has developed into a vast industrial zone for electronics. Multinationals are running manufacturing units at NOIDA.

The marketing centres are growing side by side industrial units. Hightech information systems, efficient transportation and steady power supply are going to reduce the physical isolation of villages. There is mounting pressure on industries to disperse from cities.

Information-based marketing will take over the traditional marketing system. Purchases being traditionally confined to spices, salt, tobacco and textiles is no longer relevant. It is unfortunate that rural wealth goes into land and gold. Banks are gaining acceptance among the rural rich to handle and manage their investments.

A family budget allocates 50 per cent of the income to food, clothing and health. Durables consumer goods claim 30 per cent of the annual incomes, and 10 per cent is saved in the case of the upper classes. The new middle class, which has created by modern institutions, spends 30 per cent of the income on this kitchen and 30 per cent on education and clothing.

A substantial 15 per cent goes to health care. A negligible 5 per cent is saved in the form of compulsory contribution to provident fund. It is the white collar working class.


What is Rural Marketing – Organisation and Working

However, a few product of rural industry have a fair share of the market through co-operative dairies, mandis (rural markets) under the control of co-operative marketing societies, and co-operative warehousing societies, to cite a few. By looking at mandis in different states, some salient features of the rural market can be deduced from their organisation and working.

In the first instance, co-operative marketing societies are formed with membership drawn from among the farming class. The membership fees meet the cost of organisation and administration. The office-bearers are elected representatives. Policies are formulated by the general body, and the executive powers are vested in the management committees.

The day-to-day working of mandis is entrusted to the management committee. It exercises its power to supervise control and manage the marketing activities. The Food Corporation of India (FCI) is the biggest procuring agency in the public sector. It deputes its staff to procure cereal food items, jute and cotton for its buffer- stocks. The network of mandis is widespread in the country. Farmers get full value for their produce.

However, vegetables, fruits, flowers and other perishable items have to be transported to private mandis. The Azadpur Vegetable and Fruit Mandi in Delhi is the biggest mandi is Asia. It is managed by private traders. New arrivals at the time of harvest are purchased by private traders at low prices.

Most of the produce is stored in warehouses. After the harvest, the prices usually rule high at the expense of the fanners as well as the consumers. In the long run, this act's as a disincentive to undertaking extensive cultivation of vegetables and fruits. Co-operative societies have yet to show their competitive strength in perishable items.

The problem is amenable to solution through provision of warehousing facilities by the cooperative sector. Setting up warehouses being expensive, individual fanners may not find it easy to finance it. Besides, farmers are not conversant with the organisation and management of warehouses.

Rural economic development is thwarted by the illiteracy and lack of technical know-how. The adult literacy programme and some community projects have the twin object of eradicating illiteracy and developing technical know-how.


What is Rural Marketing – Rural Consumers and their Behaviour

There are following points to understand and review regularly related to the rural consumers and their behaviours:

나는. Who are the rural consumers?

ii. Their habits,

iii. Education level,

iv. Standard of living,

v. Quality consciousness,

vi. Earnings and its sources,

vii. Collection of this information ie, rural market research.

These features are self-explanatory. But their collection mode ie market research is very significant job for an organisation to know the basic requirements of the rural consumers and their behaviours so as to promote the sales of their products in the rural markets.

The best method would be to send their own sales and marketing representatives regularly to the rural areas and have direct contacts with the people to know their needs and expectations besides about their other information as listed above.

Accessing the Rural Markets :

Access to the rural markets may be directly or through the private sales and marketing channels. These channels may be wholesalers or retailers. The wholesalers or retailers should have their strong sales and marketing supports and facilities so as to cover the rural markets effectively.

Customisation for Rural Market :

Present practice by the companies dealing in the consumer goods (FMCG) is to take the rural market very seriously. They have realized that there is a great need to understand the rural market, the people, their needs and usage of products. Indian as well as MNCs are innovating and customizing their products for successful operation in the rural market. These companies have realized that urban products need to be changed to the rural consumers' tastes and satisfaction.

Companies who are very successful in the rural markets are; Ghadi detergent, Priyagold biscuits, Cavinkare. Global giants like GE, Honeywell, Intel and Dupoint are all spending money and time in understanding the specific needs of the rural consumers and customizing their products accordingly.

Opportunities, Issues and Challenges of the Rural Market :

Rural accounts for 55% of India's total income. The number of middle class households in rural nearly equals urban and is expected to grow six times from 32 million in 2005 to 208 million by 2020. Rural accounts for 65% of the country spending. So there is a huge market waiting in the rural. For example by 2012, rural share of mobile subscribers will be 60% with 440 million subscribers from the current share of 31%.

At the same time, there are issues and challenges in the rural. Some of the issues are; road infrastructure, communication, electricity etc.


What is Rural Marketing – Importance: Future Prospective, Increase in per Capita Income, Media Effect, Growing Literacy, Social Awareness and a Few Others

In India rural marketing was neglected in early days. The obstacles were there seen as, inaccessibility, low purchasing power of rural customers, lack of distribution facilities in rural areas and very less presence of media. However, the complete transformation in rural scenario is witnessed, because of many important factors like media penetration, growing percentage of Literacy, increase in social awareness, improved farm management, road connectivity, expansion in telecom network, improved banking and credit facility, increasing population.

Importance of rural marketing can be stressed with the help of following points:

1. Future Prospective :

As far as India is concerned every company in India is now aware of the truth that sale can be significantly improved with targeting rural sector because of rise in the overall standard of living and want for purchasing more and more products with different varieties is also increasing day by day.

With this study, every organization is setting some special teams of marketing managers responsible for studying, analyzing, implementing marketing strategies in rural areas and thus boosts the sales figures rapidly.

Nokia is the best example of how marketing in rural area can affect sales and create a Brand value even more than the urban or metros.

Nokia is one of the most sought brand in rural area even if it's share in total mobile companies have reduced with the aggressive strategy implemented by Samsung mobiles. In villages people buy products on the basis of trust and faith and not on technical specialties .

2. Increase in Per Capita Income:

Country spotted increase in per capita income even in rural sector which resulted in the rising demand for the various product including consumer durables and even luxuries products.

Rural sector is so attracting the organizations that they are spending millions of rupees for marketing alone in the rural areas.

3. Boosting of Overall Progress of Company:

Rural marketing with proper marketing techniques can create magical results and thus every corporate organization is keen in making such marketing and promotion mixes useful for the product sale and increase in profits.

Many loss making companies have changed their focus from urban areas to rural sector by changing some product lines and attracting rural people which resulted in their loss making status to profit seeking and even profit making corporations.

Thus rural marketing cannot be overlooked because future lies in this sector and every company must know this truth.

4. Media Effect:

Media penetration in rural area is one of the most important factors in creating awareness about products availability, change & updates in technology & current market trend. People have started to use advanced equipments for farming, home appliances, electronic gadgets and brandied clothes. Refrigerator, iron, microwaves, mobile phones, two wheelers, four wheelers are becoming mandatory things in rural area.

Advertisement on Television gets and radio leaves a big impact on the people. Most of the companies take an advantage of the customer behavior and advertise their product accordingly. Following the stardom is one of the trends which are followed by a large percentage of rural youth. This is the reason why companies can offer bollywood stars or sports persons (successful) to advertise their product.

TV entertainment is being used more effectively than often seen on Television set. Most of the events shown on the television are result of an advertisement.

5. Growing Literacy:

As a result of many government policies and promotions for creating an awareness of education in rural areas the literacy rate is constantly increasing. Literacy especially in youth of rural areas, is helping them to earn more money in available budget. People have started to use advanced equipments for farming and gaining more profit. Reducing the manpower in farming sector is creating new opportunities.

Young people get jobs in urban areas and others have started various small scale business. Hence the average income per family is increasing rapidly so the standard of living is also going high about quality of products and seemed to be rising about branded products. Durability and price are being considered while purchasing.

6. Social Awareness:

Change in lifestyle is mostly because of copying the lifestyle people see and people do, it's observed that people play most important role in advertisements of the product. When a customer purchases a product he tells about it to everybody, he meets or at least few of them. Whatever experience of customer has had with the product is automatically spread. This factor is one of the important factors in marketing.

While living in a society people are more careful about their behavior, and the way they carry themselves. Nobody wants to look less impressive than others. They spend a large percentage of their earning on maintaining their status in the society. For maintaining the status they purchase products which at least match the market trend.

7. Improvement in Farming :

Population of world is increasing rapidly. India is the second largest in the world population. To fulfill the need of food of this much large population a lot of research has been done on farming equipments and techniques which increases productivity. Farmers have adapted themselves with the new techniques and equipments.

Eventually with the help of latest technologies and new ideas farmers have started to make more profit. Hence the market for the advanced farming equipments and market for luxurious products is also improving the overall status in rural market.

8. Improvement in Infrastructure and Expansion of Telecom Network :

A government scheme like, “Pantapradhan gram sadak yojana” has helped people in rural areas to get connected with urban areas. Which at the end helps in creating more business opportunities and more healthy distribution chain in rural areas. Network providers have reached to the rural areas and have captured a big market. Because of easy telecommunication and use of advanced phones, people in rural area are always connected to the world. They get the same updates about market trends and newly launched products as urban people.

9. Improved Banking & Credit Facility:

Organization in banking sectors has realized the opportunities of profitable business in rural areas. Most of the rural areas are being captured by nationalized as well as small banks. Rural people get the loans easily from the banks as banking organizations have lower the criteria's and most of farmers put mortgages to get the loan. Getting financial assistance in difficult times or to start new business ends with profit to both parties, banks & customers.


What is Rural Marketing – Constraints : Scattered Markets, Physical Distribution, Channel Management, Sales Force Management, Rural Promotion and a Few Others

Rural India lives in villages with varying customs, languages, culture, education and prosperity and most marketers are not ready to face the same.

There are many reasons why companies are reluctant to explore the rural markets:

(a) Resources – The companies require resources in terms of men, money and materials to enter the rural markets.

(b) Long-term Plan – Even if they have the resources, it may not be possible to increase the sales, market share and profits within a short period and therefore companies have to treat such expenses as investment for business development in rural areas.

(c) Management Support – While the top management may be committed to development of rural markets, many of the junior level staff may not have the knowledge, skills, attitude to explore the rural markets and they continue to focus on urban marketing.

Adi Godrej, Chairman of Godrej has rightly observed — “The rural consumer is discerning and the rural market is vibrant. At the current rate of growth, it will soon outstrip the urban market. The rural market is no longer sleeping but we are.”

Industry Survey (2010) of over 100 companies shows that half of the senior executives are keen to tap the rural market. However, they are concerned about lack of infrastructure facilities like road connectivity, teledensity, availability of skilled manpower and seasonal demand.

While rural markets offer tremendous opportunities for the marketers, it is not possible to take a sizeable share of the market in the short run due to the following reasons:

1. Scattered Markets :

The rural market consists of about 6 lakh villages and 833 million consumers. The urban population of 377 million is concentrated in about 7, 000 towns and cities. Reaching such a widely scattered consumers and retailers over a large geographical area is a challenging job indeed.

2. Physical Distribution :

(a) Transportation – It involves moving goods from one place to another. The infrastructure is very poor in our country. The roads are in bad condition and 20 per cent of the villages are not connected by road. In interior villages, animal carts are used to carry goods. This type of transport is slow and inadequate. Other problems are non-availability of rail transport, poor bus/lorry services in villages.

(b) Warehousing – Warehousing includes receiving the goods, despatching small consignments and documentation. No 'pucca' godown facilities are available in rural areas.

(c) Communication – We have 1, 40, 000 post offices in rural and semi-urban areas. Post and telegraph system is not well developed in interior rural areas. Even today 20 per cent of the villages are without telephone facility.

3. Channel Management :

(a) Multi-tier System is requited to service rural customers.

Example – Company depot/C&F Agent in the city, distributor in town, stockist at Mandi/Taluka level, wholesaler in feeder market and retailer in the village result in increase in cost of distribution.

(b) No Scope for Manufacturer Owned Outlets – Low volumes do not justify own showrooms.

(c) Limited Availability Retailers – It is uneconomical to run retail shops due to low sales turnover in rural areas. In many markets, retailers are not just available. Practically, there are no shops in the villages having less than 500 population and there are about 2 lakh villages under this category.

(d) Fewer Brands – Studies conducted have shown that the rural retailer keeps less number of brands of products due to limited sales in villages.

(e) Inadequate Banking and Credit Facility – Banking facilities are inadequate in rural areas. There are no banks in villages having less than 2, 000 population. Marketers find it difficult to collect funds through bank. Further, the consumers and merchants are not able to avail credit facilities.

4. Sales Force Management:

The salesperson plays an important role in promoting the products through direct contacts with the customers.

Requirements of a rural salesperson are given below:

(i) Fluency in local languages.

(ii) Capacity to work for extended hours.

(iii) Ability to undertake long journeys.

(iv) Has to put up with inadequate boarding/lodging facilities.

(v) Knowledge of values, beliefs and perceptions that influence the behaviour of consumers.

(vi) Preferably from local area.

(vii) Knowledge of different types of rural customers.

(viii) Selling skills.

(ix) Knowledge of competition.

(x) General knowledge about agriculture.

Considering communication facilities, location of personnel in small towns and the large number of salesmen required to service rural market, sales force management is a very challenging for marketers.

5. Rural Promotion:

Rural marketing requires special promotion efforts, such as AVP van, demonstrations, and group meetings due to the unique characteristics of the market. The media and the methods have to be formulated accordingly.

Example – In urban markets, print media has become very popular. The same is not very suitable for rural markets due to low literacy level. There are 18 recognised languages and 850 different dialects. Communicating with these rural consumers hence becomes very difficult.

6. Underdeveloped People and Market :

The rural markets are highly scattered and there are barriers in reaching the rural consumers due to the following:

(i) Low literacy

(ii) Low income

(iii) Seasonal demand

(iv) Price sensitivity

(v) Low quality-consciousness

(vi) Traditional practices, and

(vii) Low reach of mass media.


What is Rural Marketing – Opportunities i n India: Low Penetration Rate, Impact of Globalisation, Increase in Literacy Rate, Low Penetration Rate and a Few Others

The rural market has been growing gradually over the past few years. The saving to income percentage in rural areas is 30% higher than urban areas. At present approximately 53% of all FMCG and 59% of Consumer durables are being sold in rural areas. The immense potential of the rural market can be realised, if the marketers understand this market. The huge untapped needs of the rural mass, the growing rural economy and the increasing media penetration and brand awareness make this market extremely attractive to marketers.

So Rural markets are providing a lot of opportunities to the marketers.

Major opportunities available in rural markets are as follows:

1. Increase in disposable Income and Purchasing Power :

Among the important factors contributing to the opportunities in the rural markets for the marketer, the continuous rise in rural income is the most important. More agricultural production and substantial increases in the disposable incomes of rural people and countrywide progress have been catalyzed by many rural development schemes implemented by government.

The agricultural development programs of the government have helped to increase income in the agriculture sector by increasing the productivity and better price for agriculture products, thus enhancing the purchasing power in rural markets. Continuous government efforts for narrowing income inequalities have expanded the market for consumer goods by bringing into its fold newer segments.

Increase in income and purchasing power has provided the marketer greater opportunity to expand their operations in rural markets.

2. Increase in Population and Hence Increase in Demand :

The rural market in India is vast and scattered and offers a lot of opportunities in comparison to the urban sector. It covers the maximum population and regions and thereby, the maximum number of consumers.

742 million Indians constituting 138 million households reside in 6, 38, 365 villages (Census 2001), the size of rural market itself speaks of its potential. The current marketing environment and economic scenario have brought the corporate under contemporary roofs of modern India, which is challenging the current standards of segmenting, targeting and reaching the customers. Increased population lead to the increase in demand for the products of the marketer.

3. Saturation of Urban Market :

The urban market is reaching towards saturation point which brings out the urgent need to focusing on rural markets. Intensified competition in urban market increases costs and reduces market share. The rural markets are therefore increasingly attractive in relation to urban markets. The automobile market brings this out clearly. Rajdoot motorcycles, Bajaj Scooters or Ambassador Cars find ready acceptance in rural markets as compared to urban markets, where there is a proliferation of brands.

Saturation in urban market is a signal for marketers to make strategies for tapping rural markets.

4. Accessibility to Markets due to Improvement in Infrastructure Facilities :

Infrastructure is improving rapidly in rural areas which lead to easy access to these markets. The pro-rural long term policies and programmes (for example, Bharat Nirman, NRHM) in the last five years have brought with them the promise of sustainable infrastructure and social development of rural India, bringing rural markets back to the centre-stage of the corporate world. In 2005, the introduction of the flagship programme, Bharat Nirman which focused on an all-round infrastructure development, has brought about a remarkable transformation in the rural landscape.

The programme aims at building infrastructure and basic amanities in rural areas to reduce the gap between rural and urban areas. It covers rural housing, irrigation, potential, drinking water, rural roads, electrification and rural telephony. The road network had facilitated a systemized product distribution system to villages.

5. Lesser Dependence on Agriculture and Monsoon :

There was a time when market predictions were made on the basis of the state of the monsoon but this trend has changed over the years. There is large non farming sector, which generates almost 45% of the rural wealth. Due to this rural consumer need not be totally dependent on agriculture for their income. Corporate India is also learning to live with the uncertainty of rain.

6. Low Penetration Rate :

Penetration rate in rural India is very low. Low penetration indicates the existence of unsaturated market, which are likely to expand as the income level rises as awareness increases. It provides an excellent opportunity for the industry players in form of vastly untapped markets.

7. Increasing Sale of Branded Products :

Sales of branded goods have already overtaken those of non-branded products in villages. Rural consumers are also becoming aware of the branded products and also have started using branded products which provide a vast opportunity for a rural marketer.

8. Impact of Globalisation :

The impact of globalization will be felt in rural India as much as in urban. But, it will be slow. It will have its impact on target groups like farmers, youth and women. Farmers, today keep in touch with the latest information and maximize both ends. Animal feed producers no longer look at Andhra Pradesh or Karnataka. They keep their cell phones constantly connected to global markets.

Surely, price movements and products' availability in the international market place seem to drive their local business strategies. On youth, its impact is on knowledge and information and while on women it still depends on the socio-economic aspect. The marketers who understand the rural consumer and fine tune their strategy are sure to reap benefits in the coming years.

In fact, the leadership in any product or service is linked to leadership in the rural India except for few lifestyle-based products, which depend on urban India mainly. Due to effect of globalisation, there is a wide scope of rural marketing.

9. Increase in Literacy Rate :

The rural literacy rate has improved in recent past which have increased the awareness among rural consumers. They are also interested in developing the market in rural area. Rural people have started to go to urban areas for higher education. Even government has introduced various schemes for rural education. Awareness has increased and the farmers are well informed about the world around them. They are also educating themselves on the new technology around them and aspiring for a better lifestyle.

10. Increasing the Role of Media :

Mass media has created the increased demand for goods and services in rural areas which provides an ample opportunity to rural marketer for earning profits. Radio and TV have revolutionized the entire marketing scenario. Practically TV is more effective in conveying and injecting an idea. TV has changed the rural folk's outlook, attitude and lifestyles.

It penetrates into rural areas smoothly and makes the work of sales personnel easy. Radio covers 62 percent of urban and 40 percent of the rural population. TV covers 80 percent of the urban and 35 percent of the rural population. Doordarshan is being overshadowed by cable network. The net effect of increasing coverage of audio-video media is greater and it provides greater exposure to modern life-styles and brands.

Media impact on rural customers is high. This is changing their lifestyles, thereby increasing their consumption of non-food items. Interest arousal capability of TV is high. Acceptance of brands is high and attitude has changed due to media exposure. Media has reached to rural area, so it becomes easier for marketer to sell product in rural area.

11. IT Penetration in Rural India :

Today's rural children and youth will grow up in an environment where they have information access to education opportunities, government schemes, mandi prices, exam results, career counseling, job opportunities, weather forecasts, bank loans, worldwide news and information, livelihood options etc., If television could change the language of brand communication in rural India, affordable web connectivity through various types of communication hubs will surely impact the currency of information change.

As the electronic ethos and IT Culture moves into rural India, the possibility of change is becoming visible.

12. Increase in Government Initiatives :

Various schemes of Government like Kisan Credit Card helped the farmers to take loans for fertilizers, seeds etc. This enables them to produce more and increase their income. Government schemes like IRDP (Integrated Rural Development Programme), JRY (Jawahar Rozgar Yojna) and TRYSEM (Training Rural Youth for Self-Employment) have created new employment opportunities in Rural India.

As a result, very few rural people are now flocking to urban cities. There is also large inflow of investment for rural development programmes from the government. In addition to this, the government's stress on self-sufficiency resulted in various schemes like operation flood (White Revolution), Blue Revolution, Yellow Revolution etc., has resulted in the production of 15 million tons of milks per annum.

13. Rural Marketing is not Expensive :

Though rural consumers are dispersed, reaching them is costly but new research indicate that selling in rural India is not expensive. Expenses on campaign like advertisement in newspaper, television etc. is lower in rural areas as compared to urban areas.


 

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